New Delhi (ABC Live): Nuclear Power Reactors : As of November 2016 more than 30 countries worldwide are operating 444 nuclear reactors for electricity generation and 66 new nuclear plants are under construction.
Today, 439 nuclear power reactors produce approximately 16 per cent of the world’s electricity.
Nuclear power plants provided 10.9 percent of the world’s electricity production in 2012. In 2014, 13 countries relied on nuclear energy to supply at least one-quarter of their total electricity.
Nuclear safety is the responsibility of every nation that utilizes nuclear technology. The IAEA, through the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, works to provide a strong, sustainable and visible global nuclear safety and security framework for the protection of people, society and the environment.
This framework provides for the harmonized development and application of safety and security standards, guidelines and requirements; but it does not have the mandate to enforce the application of safety standards within a country.
A landmark address by United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1953, “Atoms for Peace”, led to the establishment in 1957 of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
The IAEA’s relationship with the United Nations is guided by an agreement signed by both parties in 1957. It stipulates that: “The Agency undertakes to conduct its activities in accordance with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations Charter to promote peace and international co-operation, and in conformity with policies of the United Nations furthering the establishment of safeguarded worldwide disarmament and in conformity with any international agreements entered into pursuant to such policies.”
Treaties Involved in the Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones
The following treaties form the basis for the existing Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones:
- Treaty of Tlatelolco— Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean
- Treaty of Rarotonga— South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty
- Treaty of Bangkok— Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone
- Treaty of Pelindaba— African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty
- Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia
- Nuclear Power Reactors in the World